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2 layer circuit PCB
As the PCB design gets complex, double-sided PCB are used for the purpose as the PCB pattern utility area gets double. Complex circuits as they have twice the area for the conductor pattern compared to single-sided PCBs. Double sided PCB have conducting areas on both sides of the plane. That makes pattern making complex and requires electrical connections between them. Double sided PCB needs vias for interconnection. The double-sided printed circuit board manufacturing needs further lab setup and cannot be manufactured using PCB hobbyists. Though hobbyists are making double layer PCB by local methods of two-sided printing, drilling, pasting and electrolyzing. Two layer PCB designs are used in plenty of projects which involved simple designs to complex patterns. Its manufacturing involves all the PCB design process we discussed in earlier blogs.
4 layer PCB
Multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs) represented the next major evolution in fabrication technology. From the base platform of double sided plated thru came a very sophisticated and complex methodology that would again allow circuit board designers a dynamic range of interconnects and applications. Multilayer circuit boards were essential in the advancement of modern computing. The multilayer PCB basic construction and fabrication are similar to microchip fabrication on a macro size. The range of material combinations is extensive from basic epoxy glass to exotic ceramic fills. Multilayer can be built on ceramic, copper, and aluminum. Blind and buried vias are commonly produced, along with pad on via technology. Manufacturing multilayer circuit boards is a straightforward process but do require a high level of attention to detail. PCBs Manufacturing multilayer PCBs requires a specialized hydraulic press with heated platens.
The multilayer PCB is made up by two or more PCBs which are stacked together with the reliable predefined mutual connection between them. There are at least three conductive layers in one multilayer PCB with two layers outside and the one layer synthesized in the insulation board. Due to the complex manufacturing process and lower production, the cost of multilayer PCB is relatively higher. Multi-layer PCB needs further design attention as we have to keep some points into consideration from manufacturing perspective:
• Copper areas – on inner layers, all copper should be kept at least and largest value.
• Via clearance through inner layers (antipads)
• Allow for clearance around any holes or via barrels not connected to an inner layer. This clearance should be at least 15 mils although 20 mil clearance is preferred.
• Thermal Relief Pads – the tie should be a minimum of 8 mils while more is preferable.
• Larger geometries – will result in higher yields which will be reflected in your board price.